(TRID) Regulations from the CFPB
For more than 30 years, Federal law has required lenders to provide two different disclosure forms to consumers applying for a mortgage. The law also generally has required two different forms at or shortly before closing on the loan. Two different Federal agencies developed these forms separately, under two Federal statutes: the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 (RESPA). The information on these forms is overlapping and the language is inconsistent. Consumers often find the forms confusing, and lenders and settlement agents find the forms burdensome to provide and explain.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) directs the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau) to integrate the mortgage loan disclosures under TILA and RESPA Sections 4 and 5. Section 1032(f) of the Dodd-Frank Act mandated that the Bureau propose for public comment rules and model disclosures that integrate the TILA and RESPA disclosures by July 21, 2012. The Bureau satisfied this statutory mandate and issued proposed rules and forms on July 9, 2012. To accomplish this, the Bureau engaged in extensive consumer and industry research, analysis of public comment, and public outreach for more than a year. After issuing the proposal, the Bureau conducted a large-scale quantitative study of its proposed integrated disclosures with approximately 850 consumers, which concluded that the Bureau’s integrated disclosures had on average statistically significant better performance than the current disclosures under TILA and RESPA. The Bureau has now finalized a rule with new, integrated disclosures – Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) and the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z) (78 FR 7973, Dec. 31, 2013) (TILA-RESPA rule). The TILA-RESPA rule also provides a detailed explanation of how the forms should be filled out and used.
First, the Good Faith Estimate (GFE) and the initial Truth-in-Lending disclosure (initial TIL) have been combined into a new form, the Loan Estimate. Similar to those forms, the new Loan Estimate form is designed to provide disclosures that will be helpful to consumers in understanding the key features, costs, and risks of the mortgage loan for which they are applying, and must be provided to consumers no later than the third business day after they submit a loan application. Second, the HUD-1 and final Truth-in-Lending disclosure (final TIL and, together with the initial TIL, the Truth-in-Lending forms) have been combined into another new form, the Closing Disclosure, which is designed to provide disclosures that will be helpful to consumers in understanding all of the costs of the transaction. This form must be provided to consumers at least three business days before consummation of the loan.
The forms use clear language and design to make it easier for consumers to locate key information, such as interest rate, monthly payments, and costs to close the loan. The forms also provide more information to help consumers decide whether they can afford the loan and to facilitate comparison of the cost of different loan offers, including the cost of the loans over time.
The final rule applies to most closed-end consumer mortgages. It does not apply to home equity lines of credit (HELOCs), reverse mortgages, or mortgages secured by a mobile home or by a dwelling that is not attached to real property (i.e., land). The final rule also does not apply to loans made by persons who are not considered “creditors,” because they make five or fewer mortgages in a year. The TILA-RESPA rule is effective October 1, 2015.